The Russian Nuclear Shelter Bunker 42
The Cold War Museum Bunker 42 is a former military facility, located at the depth of 213 feet (65 meters) in the center of Moscow. Its area is 7,000 square meters, and it includes 4 crossed tunnels. This shelter was built many years ago in the event of a nuclear attack. It was constructed in 1950 at the height of the Cold War between the USSR and the USA. A Spare Long-Range Aviation Command Post (ET-42) was located here. The idea of this secret military facility came to Joseph Stalin, the Soviet leader, after the tragedies in Hiroshima and Nagasaki.
Stalin realized that his loyal allies could become very dangerous enemies. For that reason he delivered an order to construct a network of invulnerable underground bases. The Russian military and technical staff worked under the ground all year long, 24x7. In 1960s the nuclear shelter had enough food, water and gas in it; an air recycling system was functioning. A radio station, а geodesic laboratory, the Central Telegraph and a secret office for Joseph Stalin were also constructed in the bunker.
Every single day 100-600 specialists were responsible for providing communication in the secret base. More than 2,500 employees were working here. The underground was able to function independently for several months, shielding up to 5,000 people.
Why it was reconstructed
Many years later, in the end of eighties, the Soviet leader realized that there was no risk of a nuclear attack any more, and the secret Bunker was literally taken to pieces.
In the mid-seventies due to technical problems the bunker was reconstructed. It was planned to convert it to the needs of the Central Telegraph. But in the nineties the former shelter was declassified and sold out.
In 2006 the interactive museum of the Cold War was opened here. Visitors are allowed to try on an authentic military uniform, touch weapons, walk through secret tunnels and “work” as a radioman. Bunker 42 is opened 24x7, and many guests have enjoyed this place in the night.
The Cold War
The USA did not share details on its nuclear program and considered a possibility on communists attack. To prevent Russian nuclear attack, the US military planes with nuclear bombs flew around the world.
During the war there was a weapon race between the USA and the former USSR. Soviet Union considered a building in the center of Pentagon as an extremely important object, which was used as a secret meeting-room. For that reason Russian nuclear weapons were pointed at it.
It is hard to believe, but during the Cold War two countries discussed a possibility of exploring the space together.
The Cold War was over in November of 1990 and the Iron Curtain finally fell.