Detinets, Novgorod Kremlin
Novgorod Detinets, which is also known as Novgorod Kremlin, is a citadel of Veliky Novorod. Detinets stands on the left shore of the Volkhov River and was first mentioned in 1044. Today it is in the list of the UNESCO World Heritage, which is under the Government’s protection.
2. In 10 to 11 centuries several messuages were located at the territory of the future Kremlin. The Prince Vladimir Yaroslavovich, the son of Jaroslav Mudry, started the building of the wooden Detinets. The Sophiyskaya Church, the main temple of the Kremlin, was built in 1045-1052. It was sanctified in 1052, and seven months later the Prince Vladimir died. He was buried in the Church.
7. In 1065 the wooden Kremlin was attacked by the Prince of Polotsk, Vyacheslav Bryatislavovich. The fortress of the 11th century had only two gates. Two roads lead to those gates, Velikaya Street of Nerevsk end and Priboynaya Street of Ludin end. Piskuplya Street was the main street in the Kremlin.
12. In the middle of the 11th century two more parts, the North-Eastern and Southern, were built, and Kremlin became larger. In 1097 the wooden Detinets burned out. The fortress was rebuilt much later, in 1116. In 1136 the Prince's power was limited by veche. Princes moved to Gorodische, and Kremlin became a residence for new leaders, Novgorod's supreme state authority. A significant part of Detinets was occupied by archbishop. His residence, Vladychny Dvor, was built with numerous churches, rwsidential buildings and household facilities. Unfortunately, Detinets' walls burned out again and were rebuilt in 1262. Later, in 1333, archbishop Vasily (Kalika) started building of a new Detinets of stone. The tough fortress was to protect Novgorod of an army of Ivan Kalita and Swedish troops. The stone Detinets was ready in 30s of the 15th century. Later, in 1348, Sweds broke the peaceful agreement, attacked Novgorod's lands and captured Votskaya Pyatina and the fortress Orekhov. For that reason building of Detinets was postponed up to the 50s of the 15th century.</p>
17. The fortress was totally rebuilt in 1478 to 1490 in the time of the Great Prince Ivan the third. On May 7 1862 a big peace of a wall, that was rebuilt two years before, was ruined. It was erected again, became thinner and had deep niches in it. Part of the new wall had some rooms in it, which were used as a historical archive. In 1941 to 1944 those rooms were used by German troops. On April 30 1991 a part of the wall near the Spasskaya Tower was ruined again. It was restored in 1994 to 1996.
22. Detinets stands on a ten meter high hill and has a shape similar to oval. The perimeter of its walls is 1487 meters. The longest wall is 565 meters long, and its territory is 12.1 hectares. Walls and Towers of Detinets. Its walls are built with sand-lime bricks. Kremlin's stone laying consists of lime and cobblestone. Its walls are 3.6 to 6.5 meters thick and 8 to 15 meters high. The fortress has several churches over-the-gates. Novgorod bishops initiated the building of those churches. Most of walls, which were restored in 1950s to 1960s, have the style of the 15th century.
29. Some of the Kremlin's towers names are not historical. For instance, names Dvortsovaya, Knyazhaya and Kokuy were created in 19th to 20th centuries. Each tower had five or six levels inside. Those levels were connected with wooden stairs. Lower levels were often used as a storage for ammunition. Moreover, towers were equipped with elevating systems for weapons.